What Are the Types of Commercial Real Estate Litigation?

What Are the Types of Commercial Real Estate Litigation?

In the complex world of commercial real estate, conflicts can escalate into litigation, a formal process for resolving disputes in court. Understanding the intricacies of commercial real estate litigation is crucial for attorneys, investors, property owners, and tenants who might find themselves in legal disputes. Understanding the types of commercial real estate disputes helps you navigate the formidable landscape of real estate litigation, safeguard your investments, and avoid litigation. Contact a commercial real estate lawyer for help.

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Understanding Commercial Real Estate Litigation

What Are the Types of Commercial Real Estate Litigation

Before exploring the types of commercial real estate litigation, it's essential to understand what it entails. 

Definition of Commercial Real Estate Litigation

Commercial real estate litigation involves legal disputes regarding commercial real estate properties and transactions. Disagreements occur between property owners, tenants, developers, contractors, investors, municipalities, and other parties. Common issues include contract arguments, landlord and tenant disagreements, zoning problems, construction disputes, and environmental concerns. 

The involved parties typically seek legal resolutions for their conflict. Litigation is using the court system to secure justice or enforce rights. Commercial real estate litigation can be complex, time consuming, and costly. Understanding and navigating it can be challenging. 

Factors That Contribute to Commercial Real Estate Disputes

Commercial real estate transactions may involve multiple parties with varying interests and expectations. The high transaction values and regulatory and legal guidelines create opportunities for disagreements.

Many factors contribute to commercial real estate disputes, including unclear or incomplete contract terms, negligence or misrepresentation, non-compliance with zoning and land-use regulations, construction defects, or unforeseen environmental issues. Misunderstandings between parties, failure to meet contractual obligations, and tensions between landlords and tenants also lead to litigation.

Commercial real estate professionals use their insight into contributing factors and potential dispute triggers to effectively manage their business affairs.

Common Types of Commercial Real Estate Litigation

Understanding the types of disputes that can arise in commercial real estate prepares you to handle or potentially avoid these conflicts. 

Breach of Contract

A breach of contract in commercial real estate occurs when one party fails to fulfill any contract term without a legitimate legal reason. This could include not completing a job, not paying on time, failing to deliver goods, or indicating that the party will not complete the agreed-upon work.

Examples of breach of contract include a tenant not paying rent as the lease agreement specifies, a contractor not finishing a construction project within the stipulated time, or a buyer not providing the agreed-upon payment for a property.

Breaches can result in legal remedies such as compensation for financial losses, specific performance of the contract, or cancellation and restitution. 

Landlord/Tenant Disputes

Landlords and tenants disagree over issues such as leases, rent, property maintenance, lease terminations, and eviction actions. Legal remedies include lease agreement enforcement, damages and losses compensation, or eviction or rent payment impositions.

Zoning and Land Use Disputes

Local governments implement zoning laws to dictate the acceptable use of geographic areas. These laws set the type and use of buildings an entity can construct, an area's aesthetics, and other factors. Disputes can arise when property owners wish to change zoning designations or the local government denies the proposed land use.

One example of zoning and land use disputes is a commercial property owner wanting to convert part of their retail mall into residential units who faces resistance from the local government. A business owner may want to establish a manufacturing plant in an area for retail establishments.

Owners sometimes encounter disputes when they want to modify a historical property or construct buildings that exceed height limits set by zoning laws.

Such occurrences commonly involve disagreements on the interpretation of zoning laws. Resolving them can require legal proceedings. 

Construction Disputes

Construction disputes arise in response to delays, cost overruns, or quality-of-work problems between contractors, subcontractors, suppliers, and property owners. Contract enforcement, damages, or even contract termination can resolve such disputes.

Title and Boundary Disputes

Title disputes relate to the legal ownership of the property. Boundary disputes involve disagreements over where one property ends and another begins. Legal solutions include court orders clarifying property boundaries or establishing rightful ownership.

Environmental Litigation

Environmental litigation lawsuits concern the impact of a property or development on the environment, such as issues with land contamination, pollution, or non-compliance with environmental laws. Common environmental issues in commercial real estate include standards non-compliance, property contamination, water rights disputes, or due diligence issues during a property transaction.

Co-Owner Disputes

Co-owner disputes arise when partners who own a commercial property disagree on key business decisions regarding the property. This could involve disputes around property value, leasing or selling, or management and maintenance costs.

An instance where one owner wants to sell but the other does not is an example of a co-owner dispute. Legal remedies differ according to the specifics of the contract between the co-owners. They might involve negotiations, mediation, buyouts, or a court-ordered property sale (in extreme cases). Understanding the nature of co-ownership and having a well-drafted contract helps avoid or mitigate such disputes.


Foreclosure is the legal process by which a lender evicts a tenant, takes control, and sells a property after the owner fails to cover their mortgage payments according to the mortgage contract. In commercial real estate, this involves office buildings, shopping centers, apartment complexes, or any other non-residential property.

Foreclosures can raise numerous legal issues and disputes. Lenders and borrowers may disagree over the foreclosure process, the calculation of outstanding debt, or the conduct of the foreclosure sale. The process may also create issues for tenants of commercial properties, such as eviction or changes in lease terms.

Legal remedies in foreclosure disputes vary widely based on the circumstances. This could include loan modifications, short sales, deeds in lieu of foreclosure, or repayment plans for borrowers. Lenders might seek deficiency judgments or eviction orders, among other remedies. 

In the vast and complex domain of commercial real estate litigation, having an experienced attorney by your side is incredibly valuable. The role of a real estate attorney in these situations is to represent you in legal proceedings, advise you on your legal rights and obligations, prepare and review contracts, handle negotiations, and resolve disputes.

Role of a Real Estate Attorney in Litigation

A real estate attorney focuses on legal transactions and disputes related to property. Their role in litigation typically includes representing their clients before administrative agencies and at trial and appellate courts. They manage all aspects of a case, including drafting pleadings and motions, conducting discovery, negotiating settlements, and arguing cases in court, if necessary.

Benefits of Hiring a Real Estate Attorney

Hiring a real estate attorney can be highly beneficial when you're going through commercial real estate litigation. They provide invaluable knowledge and experience for navigating the complex litigation process on your behalf and obtaining the best possible outcome.

An attorney's knowledge of local, state, and federal property laws is instrumental in tackling litigations related to zoning laws, contract disputes, landlord and tenant disagreements, or environmental concerns. They provide legal advice, interpret laws, and apply them to your situation.

An attorney saves you time and reduces your stress. They handle complicated paperwork, meet deadlines, and follow procedures, allowing you to focus on your business operations.

An attorney with experience in commercial real estate litigation executes the best plan of action in any dispute. They weigh the pros and cons of different approaches, be it negotiation, arbitration, or trial, and guide you through making decisions that are beneficial to your interests. Whether providing legal advice or representing you in court, an attorney is your best line of defense against potential legal challenges.

How to Avoid Commercial Real Estate Litigation

Commercial real estate litigation can be a complex, time-consuming, and costly process. When at all possible, all parties will avoid litigation. Here are some key strategies that can help you avoid commercial real estate disputes that lead to litigation.

Importance of Thorough Contracts

Contracts serve as the backbone of all commercial real estate transactions. Having a thorough, well-drafted contract can significantly reduce the likelihood of disputes down the line. This means that you should clearly articulate all terms and conditions, leaving no room for ambiguity.

The contract should include and concisely define property descriptions, each party's responsibilities, payment details, schedules, and any other necessary details. 

If there are any required changes, you should note and agree to them in writing. Hiring an experienced real estate attorney to draft or review your contracts ensures completeness and legal enforceability.

Importance of Understanding Zoning Laws and Land Use Regulations

Zoning laws and land use regulations vary by jurisdiction and can often be complex. Non-compliance with these laws can lead to legal disputes and litigation. It's crucial to understand and comply with all zoning laws and land use regulations applicable to your property. This includes understanding any potential changes to these laws and planning accordingly. Your commercial real estate attorney makes sure you comply with any relevant zoning laws. 

Importance of Regular Property Inspections

Maintaining the condition of a commercial property is a crucial aspect of managing real estate. Regular property inspections can help identify and address potential issues before they escalate into larger problems that could lead to litigation. Inspections should be thorough and cover all aspects of the property, including structural integrity, safety standards, and environmental considerations. 

Importance of Open Communication and Negotiation

Mismanaged relationships and miscommunication are often at the root of commercial real estate disputes. Maintaining open channels of communication with all parties, including tenants, contractors, and government authorities, helps prevent misunderstandings and disagreements.

If a dispute arises, negotiation often resolves it. Engaging in good faith negotiations potentially saves all parties from the expense and hassle of litigation. A commercial real estate attorney negotiates on your behalf, usually without going to court. 

The best way to avoid commercial real estate litigation is by being proactive in your dealings. A comprehensive contract, understanding of zoning laws and regulations, regular property inspections, and open communication go a long way in preventing legal disputes and ensuring smooth real estate transactions. 

Do You Need a Commercial Real Estate Litigation Attorney?

Jordan Lulich, Commercial Real Estate Litigation Attorney
Jordan Lulich, Commercial Real Estate Litigation Lawyer

Commercial real estate litigation can be a complex and daunting aspect of the business, but a firm understanding of the intricacies can navigate this legal labyrinth. A commercial real estate litigation attorney offers representation and professional advice, guiding you through the fine details of your dealings.

Proactively dealing with and diligently considering all aspects of the transactions and relationships in commercial real estate may completely avoid the potentially hefty expenses and time-consuming nature of litigation. Whether you need to go to court or not, a Vero Beach real estate lawyer provides valuable support.